Monthly Archives: November 2011

Andrea Palladio

Andrea Palladio

PalladioPalladio, the greatest architect of sixteenth century Northern Italy, was probably born in Padua in1508. At birth his name was Andrea di Pietro; he didnot take the classical name Palladio until he was middleaged. Around the age of 13 he worked as an apprenticeto a local stone mason, but he apparently did not stay in this workshop long. By 1524, records show that he hadenrolled in the stonemasons’ guild in nearby Vicenza, where he joined a local workshop. Eventually, his talents came to the attention of the local aristocrat, Gian Giorgio Trissino.

Trissino was a humanist scholar and he soon became the young stonemason’s patron. Under Trissino’s influence, the future architect acquired some knowledge of Latin and studied Vitruvius’ ancient treatiseon architecture. At Trissino’s urging, Andrea di Pietro changed his name to the Latin, Palladio, and with the elder aristocrat’s support the designer made several study trips to Rome during the 1540s. On one of these journeys he met Michelangelo, and during all his stays in Rome he spent a great deal of time in the ancient center of the city, studying and drawing the monuments of the ancient Roman Empire.

ARCHITECTURE
Around 1540, Palladio had already begun to design buildings in and around Vicenza. His earliest commissions were for domestic palaces in the city and country villas. These works do not yet show a secure understanding of ancient Roman architecture. During the course of the 1540s, though, his mastery of classicism grew more assured. The most important commission Palladio received at this early stage in his career as an architect was for the reconstruction of Vicenza’s Basilica. This complex, a series of local government offices,had been joined together in the later Middle Ages with a series of Gothic arcades.

Villa_Rotonda

In 1496, one of the sestructures had collapsed, and during the following decades the government at Vicenza searched for an architect who might rebuild the structures on a more secure footing. Palladio won the commission, and there sulting building he created established his reputationas an architect of merit. Palladio continued in the 1550sto design domestic palaces, government buildings, and country villas in and around Vicenza. In his country villas especially, Palladio’s works display his certain mastery over classical building styles and his ability to adapt those elements to contemporary situations. His structures were notable as well for the great harmony they achieved between interior spaces and the surrounding exterior gardens.

Before his death in 1580, the architect had populated the region around Vicenza and the Veneto (Venice’s mainland possessions) with a number of graceful and harmonious structures. Palladio’s classicism wasres trained and, in contrast to the great Venetian architect Sansovino, he used relatively little ornament. Porticos that made use of the region’s gentle climate were one common feature, as was the so-called Palladian window,a structure in which side columns supported a hemispherical shaped arch. In later years Palladio used his relativelysevere but graceful style in two churches he designedin the city of Venice. Read the rest of this entry

Earliest temples and tombs

Earliest temples and tombs

early egytp tombThe earliest temples and tombs built in Egypt are in Abydos in Middle Egypt. Egyptologists have been aware of these structures sincethe late 1890s. In the roughly 100 years that Egyptologists have discussed these sites, there were differing opinions on whether they were temples, tombs, or forts. Other discussions of them suggested that some of these buildings were cenotaphs, structures built only to honor certain kings but not to house their burials.

Most recently scholars have realized that these buildings represent the earliest royal tombslocated in the section of Abydos called in Arabic Umm el Gaab (“Mother of Pots”) and the earliest cult temples dedicated to deceased kings, located in the section of Abydos called in Arabic Kom es-Sultan (“Mound of the Ruler”) about two kilometers from the tombs. Moreover, the two sets of buildings can be divided into pairs that resemblelater funeral complexes consisting of a burial and a temple where the deceased king was eternally worshipped.

Early  Excavation

One of the first archaeologists to work in Egypt, the Englishman W. M. F. Petrie (1843–1942), excavated some of the earliest temples and tombs. Petrie worked all over Egypt, but during1899–1900 and 1902–1903, he concentrated his efforts on a site in Middle Egypt called Abydos. Several villages are now resident at the site formerly known as Abydos,including the village of Kom es Sultan and the village of Umm el Gaab. Petrie worked first in the village of Ummel Gaab, then two years later at the village of Kom esSultan. At Umm el Gaab Petrie found and identified thecemetery of kings of the First and Second Dynasties (3100–2675 B.C.E.). The underground portion of thesetombs was lined with wood protected by a surrounding wall of mud brick. Read the rest of this entry